[Publication] Development of Cross-Culturally Informed Leisure-Time Physical Activity Constraint and Constraint Negotiation Typologies: The Case of Japanese and Euro-Canadian Adults
An article written by Dr. Eiji Ito (Wakayama University), Dr. Shintaro Kono (CTR Visiting Fellow / Southern Illinois University) and Prof. Gordon J. Walker (Distinguished University Professor, Wakayama University / Professor, University of Alberta) was published in a tourism academic journal, the Leisure Sciences.
Development of Cross-Culturally Informed Leisure-Time Physical Activity Constraint and Constraint Negotiation Typologies: The Case of Japanese and Euro-Canadian Adults
Eiji Ito, Faculty of Tourism, Wakayama University, Wakayama, Japan
Shintaro Kono, Department of Public Health and Recreation Professions, College of Education and Human Services, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, USA
Gordon J. Walker, Faculty of Kinesiology, Sport, and Recreation, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada
Leisure Sciences, 2018
*Indexed in Scopus
Source details: https://www.scopus.com/sourceid/28910?origin=sbrowse
Our study purposes were twofold: to inductively develop crossculturally informed leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) constraint and constraint negotiation typologies and to investigate cultural similarities and differences in LTPA constraints and constraint negotiation using both the newly developed typologies and conventional Western typologies. Useable data were obtained from 211 Euro-Canadians and 183 Japanese using online surveys. A thematic analysis identified nine constraint categories (psychological, physiological and physical fitness, lifestyle, interpersonal, financial, time, commitment, environmental, and LTPA-specific) and nine constraint negotiation strategies (psychological, physiological and physical fitness, lifestyle, interpersonal, financial, time, and three LTPA-specific: modification, management, and self-adaptation). Multivariate analysis of covariance identified no cultural differences when the conventional typologies were analyzed. However, when the culturally informed typologies were similarly analyzed, compared to Japanese, Euro-Canadians reported (a) time constraints more and LTPA-specific constraints less and (b) financial and time negotiation strategies more and the LTPA-specific (i.e., management) negotiation strategies less.
Canada; constraints; constraint negotiation; culture; Japan