[Publication] Discrepancies Between Japanese Undergraduate Students’ Ideal Affect and Actual Affect in Social Contexts and Life Domains
A co-authored article written by CTR Researchers, Dr. Eiji Ito (Wakayama University) and Prof. Gordon J. Walker (Distinguished University Professor, Wakayama University / Professor, University of Alberta) was published in the International Journal of the Sociology of Leisure.
Discrepancies Between Japanese Undergraduate Students’ Ideal Affect and Actual Affect in Social Contexts and Life Domains
Eiji Ito, Faculty of Tourism, Wakayama University, Wakayama, Japan
Gordon J. Walker, Faculty of Kinesiology, Sport, and Recreation, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada
Bradley Mannell, English Testing Canada, Toronto, Canada
International Journal of the Sociology of Leisure, 2018
Previous studies have indicated that both social and leisure contexts appear to lessen the discrepancy between ideal and actual affective states. However, research using the experience sampling method (ESM) to investigate relationships among ideal-actual affect discrepancies, leisure participation, and social contexts is rare. Therefore, the purpose of our ESM study was to examine the discrepancies between ideal and actual affect in social contexts (i.e., being alone vs. with others) and life domains (i.e., leisure vs. non-leisure). Hierarchical linear modelling results indicated that compared to non-leisure/alone contexts: (a) the discrepancies in high-arousal positive and low-arousal negative affect were minimized in non-leisure/social, leisure/alone, and social/leisure contexts; (b) the discrepancy in low-arousal positive affect was minimized only in leisure/alone contexts; and (c) the discrepancies in high-arousal negative affect were not minimized in any contexts. These results suggest that leisure can be a powerful factor in minimizing certain actual-ideal affect discrepancies; however, a fuller understanding of when these discrepancies are minimized requires taking social contexts into account as well.
Affect; Experience sampling method; Japan; Leisure; Social contexts