[Publication] Are Leisure Constraints Models Reflective or Formative?: Evidence from Confirmatory Tetrad Analyses
An article written by Dr. Shintaro Kono (CTR Visiting Fellow / Southern Illinois University) and Dr. Eiji Ito (Wakayama University) has been published in an academic journal, Leisure Sciences.
Are Leisure Constraints Models Reflective or Formative?: Evidence from Confirmatory Tetrad Analyses
Shintaro Kono, Department of Public Health and Recreation Professions, College of Education and Human Services, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, IL, USA
Eiji Ito, Faculty of Tourism, Wakayama University, Wakayama, Japan
Angela Loucks-Atkinson, School of Human Kinetics and Recreation, Memorial University, St. John's, Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada
Leisure Sciences, 2018
*Indexed in Scopus
Kyle and Jun raised a serious question against the way researchers have specified leisure constraints measurement model: Leisure constraints measures should be formatively measured, while the dominant model has been reflective. Despite their important theoretical contributions, Kyle and Jun’s empirical evidence has limitations. The purpose of this paper is to directly examine their hypothesis by using a statistical method called confirmatory tetrad analysis in partial least squares. In Study 1, we tested nine leisure-time physical activity constraints sub-models with online survey data collected from 296 Canadians and 307 Japanese. Our results rejected the reflective model in six to seven out of the nine sub-categories. In Study 2, we re-analyzed Loucks-Atkinson and Mannell’s (2007) data, where the traditional three categories of leisure constraints were measured. Results again rejected the reflective model in two categories. Our results provide mixed, yet more direct evidence for Kyle and Jun’s argument.
Confirmatory tetrad analysis, leisure constraints, measurement, partial least squares, reflective and formative models